1. What is a Conjunction? 🔗
A word that connects or joins two sentences or words is called a Conjunction. e.g.,
- A and B were good friends.
- A loves B but B hates A now.
- A had died before B came to meet him.
2. Kinds of Conjunctions
Conjunctions are of two kinds
Co-ordinating Conjunctions 🔗
Co-ordinating Conjunctions connect two words or phrases or clauses or sentences of same rank.
♔🔗♔ . ♕🔗♕ . 👑🔗👑 . ♕🔗♔🔗👑 . etc. e.g.,
- He maintains two bikes and a four-wheeler.
- His bikes are new but the car is ancient.
- He said this to me and my brother.
Co-ordinating conjunctions are of four types
Cumulative or Copulative
simply connects, no contrast
and , both-and , as well as , not only - but also , also , etc.
- Bread and butter is served at breakfast.
- Bread and butter are sold in groceries.
- Both Ravi and his brother passed the exam.
- Ravi as well as his brothers has craked the exam.
- Not only Ravi but also his brothers have cracked the exam.
Alternative or Disjunctive
shows a choice or selection
either - or , neither - nor , or , otherwise , etc.
- Either she or her sister will get the pass.
- Neither she nor her sister will get the pass.
- Purple or Pink would be her favourite color.
- Run fast otherwise he will beat you in the race.
still, yet, but, however, while, whereas, only, nevertheless, albeit, etc.
- It is 4-year-old still it seems new.
- He is weak yet he can walk well.
- However he might talk, he is good from heart.
- He is recovering albeit slowly.
shows conclusion or deduction
so, therefore, consequesntly, for, etc.
- She did not come, therefore she missed the award.
- Ravi will be out of the town, so I will give the speech on his behalf.
Subordinating Conjunctions 🔗
Subordinating Conjunctions connect dependent or subordinate clauses to a principal clause.
♔🔗♕ . ♕🔗♔ . 👑🔗♔🔗♔ . ♕🔗👑🔗♔ etc. e.g.,
- She said that she would come.
- I shall go if you come.
Subordinating Conjunctions are used to denote time, cause, effect, reason, condition, apposition, purpose, comparison, manner and survey.
after, before, when, while, since, till, until, because, as, since, so-that, such-that, if, whether-or not, unless, provided, that, in order that, so that, lest, as-as, so-as, than, as-so, according as, as if, as though, though, although, as, however, whatever, whoever, etc.
- The patient recovered after the doctor had come. (time)
- The patient had recovered before the doctor came. (time)
- She came when I was was not there. (time)
- She came while I was cooking. (time)
- I have not seen her since Monday last. (time)
- She waited till midnight. (time)
- She waited until I returnd. (time)
- He can not travel because he has no bag. (cause)
- As he has no bag, he can not travel. (reason)
- Since he has no bag, he can not travel. (reason)
- She worked so hard that she fell sick. (effect)
- Ravi is such a boy that anyone bocomes his friend easily. (effect)
- I shall cook if you come. (condition)
- He will bring his sister a pair of jeans whether she likes it or not. (condition)
- You will fail unless you study hard. (condition)
- I can help you provided you tell me the truth. (condition)
- She told me that she would come. (apposition)
- He studies hard that he comes out first in the exam. (purpose)
- He studies hard so that he comes out first in the exam. (purpose)
- Study hard lest you should fail. (purpose)
- She is as beautiful as you (are). (comparison)
- She is not so beautiful as you (are). (comparison)
- She is more beautiful than you (are). (comparison)
- It is not so easy as you thinik. (comparison)
- It is not as easy as you think. (comparison)
- As you sow, so shall you reap. (mannar)
- I shall leave them according as they submit copy. (manner)
- She behaves as if she were a queen. (manner)
- As she would have acted if she were a queen. (manner)
- He works as if he is drunk. (manner)
- He took the credit as though he were the hero. (manner)
- Though he is rich, he is dishonest. (survey)
- Rich as he is, he is dishonest. (survey)
- However quick he may be, he can not reach there. (survey)
- Whatever he may do, he can not reach there. (survey)
- Whoever he may be, he can not reach there. (survey)
3. Corelative Conjunctions
Some conjunctions are used in pairs, those conjunctions are called Corelative Conjunctions.
either-or, neither-nor, not only - but also, even if - but, other - than, nothing but, etc.
- The boy is not only tall but also handsome.
- The girl is not only beautiful but talented also.
- Even if she is well, but she cant walk.
- I have other job than to do.
- He is nothing but a worker in the company.
4. Use of ‘no sooner’, ‘hardly’, ‘rarely’, ‘barely’, ‘scarcely’
These conditions are used to connect two consecutive actions. These conjunctions apart from ‘no sooner’ are always followed by ‘when’
- Scarcely had I reached the station when the train left.
- Hardly had he left when his wife came.
Remember! ‘no sooner’ is followed by ‘than‘
- No sooner had he left than his wife came.
5. Use of ‘as soon as’
The conjunction ‘as soon as’ is also used to connect two consecutive actions, but don’t take than or then
- As soon as I reached the station, the train left.
- As soon as he left, his wife came.
6. Use of ‘though’ and ‘although’
‘though’ and ‘although’ are used to make contrast and these are used to connect complex sentences
THESE ARE ALWAYS FOLLOWED BY ‘YET’ OR ‘COMMA’
- Although he is rich and handsome yet he is not popular.
7. Use of ‘in spite of’ and ‘despite’
These are also used to connect two contrasting statements but these are used in simple sentences
- In spite of being meritorious, he could not pass in the exam.
- Despite being meritorious, he could not pass in the exam.
8. Use of ‘nevertheless’
It is used to portray a contrast
- Nevertheless you try hard, you will not be able to defeat him.
- There are serious problems in our country. Nevertheless, we feel this is a good time to return.
9. Use of ‘either … or’ and ‘neither … nor’
‘either … or’ and ‘neither … nor’ are correlative conjunctions having two parts and these two parts should be balanced (some components should be used in these two parts)(Parallelism follows)
- He either goes to church or plays football.
- He neither comes to my house nor stays here.
10. Use of ‘not only … but also’
‘not only … but also’ is also a correlative conjunction and the two parts should be balanced
- Dams not only save water but also produce electricity.
11. Use of ‘if’ and ‘whether’
The conjunction ‘if’ and ‘whether’ are used to make condition. ‘whether’ normally denotes uncertainty
- If it rains, I will not go out.
- I do not know whether he will arrive or not.
12. Use of ‘till’ and ‘until’
‘Till’ and ‘Until’ are used to make time condition. ‘Till’ is a positive term so ‘not’ may or may not be used with it but, ‘until’ is negative so ‘not’ should not be used with it.
- Wait here till I return.
- Wait here till I do not return.
- Wait here until I return.
Never start a sentence with ’till’; better use, ‘as long as’, ‘so long as’, etc.
Use of ‘Upto’
‘Upto’ is used to refer place & it refers a movement as well
- The instructor ordered me to go upto the finishing line.
13. Use of ‘no’, ‘not’ and ‘never’
When in a sentence ‘no’, ‘not’ and ‘never’ is used, these should never be followed by ‘nor’. In the place of ‘nor’, ‘or’ should be used (double negation should be avoided)
- He has no relatives or friends in this village.
14. Use of ‘both’
The word ‘both’ should always be followed by ‘and’ and not by ‘as well as’
- Both Ravi and his friends will go there.
15. Use of ‘lest’ and ‘otherwise’
Both are negative terms so ‘not’ should not be used with either of them. ‘lest’ is followed by ‘should’ but ‘otherwise’ is followed by ‘will’
- Hurry up lest you should miss the train.
- Hurry up otherwise you will miss the train.
16. Use of ‘like’ and ‘as’
Both ‘like’ and ‘as’ are used to make comparisons. After ‘like’ a noun or pronoun should be used but after ‘as’ a clause is used
- He sings like his brother.
- He sings as his brother does.
17. Use of ‘such as’
It is used to give examples
- We discussed many things such as Economics, Politics, Physics.
18. Use of ‘such … that’
It is used to refer to the effect of a previous action
- The teacher looked at the boy in such a way that the boy started crying.
19. Use of ‘as’ , ‘for’ , ‘because’ & ‘since’
These are used to denote cause and effect
- As he was ill, he couldn’t go to college yesterday.
- Since he was ill, he could not go to college yesterday.
Because → the strongest reason
Since → normally strong reason
As/for → the weakest reason
20. Use of ‘during’ and ‘while’
‘during’ follows a noun; ‘while’ follows a clause
- During the concert, it started raining.
- While the concert was going on, it started raining.
21. Use of ‘the reason is’ & ‘the reason why’
These are used to denote the reason. Do not use ‘because’ with these phrases, always use ‘that’
- The reason why she was sacked is that she did not come in time.
- The reason of her dismissal is her late coming.